Household Moisture – Its in the Furnishings and Materials

Household moisture primarily resides in the building materials and furnishings in a house.  Think your big, damp mattress, for instance.

Damp materials in your house keep your relative humidity high.  And releasing humidity into the air means that moisture will eventually find its way inside your couch, or in other furnishings or building materials.

Here is a simple chart of the equilibrium relationship between moisture in the air (RH), and moisture in materials (MC), expressed as a percentage of the mass of the material.

This chart can be read as follows:  If you house averages 70% humidity, you can follow the 70% RH line and see that spruce wood (similar to pine), will have about 13% moisture content.  Given that your house will have thousands of kg of pine in it, this chart means there will be hundreds of kg of water in that material.  And the same with wallboard, insulation, soft furnishings, and your carpet.

For experimental purposes, or for learning with school kids, a simple hygrothermal (heat and moisture) model of a house can be built as so:

Read about our recent research with the Valley Community Workspace community group: (PDF)

Also see “The Wetting and Drying of Timber Framed Walls

Damp Homes

Imagine, if you take a cold and damp house, and then wrap it in extra insulation and draughtproofing.  What do you get? A warm and damp house.  The extra insulation and draughtproofing reduce the air circulating in a house, which is a reduction of the ability for a house to dry itself.

How do we get a warm and dry house?  Capture the sun, add heating to the house, and add ventilation. This can be as simple as ensuring the windows of a house are open during the day, especially when it is sunny out.  Or you can add some sort of ventilation system that takes in outside air into the house.  Your heat pump does not do this – all a heat pump does is recirculate the damp air that is already inside your house.

On the whole, outside air is dryer than inside air, especially once it is heated to inside temperatures. This is why bringing outside air into the house helps to dry the house. There is some cost to heating outside air, but the benefit is a dryer, healthier house.  Also, if a ventilation system is used, this cost can be reduced if a heat recovery ventilation system is used. Of course using windows for ventilation is the cheapest option of all!

Psychrometric chart showing WHO recommended temperature and humidity (green+blue region), and room measurements for one week. Each point is average temperature and humidity for one hour. Different times of day are coloured differently.

Most of the moisture (>85%) in a house is in the furnishings and building materials in the house. Simply removing moist air once will not dry a house, as dampness will just evaporate from furnishings and building materials, and the air will quickly become damp again, within minutes. A damp house needs repeated flushing of the air within the house so that the furnishings and building materials within the house slowly begin to dry.

Read about our recent research with the Valley Community Workspace community group: (PDF)

Also see “The Wetting and Drying of Timber Framed Walls

The Pretty Good House

A Pretty Good House should:

  • Support the local economy. That means building with local labor, with locally available and/or produced materials, as much as possible.
  • Be commissioned following construction, and be monitored on an ongoing basis. If you don’t know, and to me it’s a strange use of the word, commissioning means testing how the house performs after it’s built.
  • Have operating costs that are minimal or reasonable.
  • Have R1.8-R3.6-R6-R10 insulation. Hopefully these numbers are obvious: they represent a “pretty good” level of insulation in a cold climate for sub-slab, foundation walls, framed walls, and roof or ceiling, respectively.
  • Measure 90-140-160-180 m2. These number are probably not as obvious; they represent an allotment of square feet of living space for 1, 2, 3, and 4+ inhabitants, respectively. It could be less — the national average is much more — but as a group we thought this was… pretty good.

What’s in and what’s out?

We came up with a list of what is in versus what is out of a pretty good house. What’s in:

  • Superinsulation.
  • 4 inches of rigid foam under the basement slab.
  • A service core for plumbing and wiring (à la Tedd Benson’s Bensonwood concept, also a feature of A Pattern Language (Alexandar, et. al.): keep services out of exterior walls, grouped for easy upgrades in the future.
  • Energy modeling (performed during the design process).
  • Adaptability/durability/recyclability. For more on this topic, see Alex Wilson’s blog, “Ensure Durability and Reuse Existing Buildings.”
  • An air leakage rate of no more than 2 ACH50. Not exactly Passivhaus, but… pretty good.
  • Good design. I was surprised it took so long for someone to mention this. A good house has to look good and feel good, not just function well.
  • An owners’ manual. I know that Michael Chandler has written about this. You get an owners’ manual with your car, DVD player, and electric toothbrush. Shouldn’t the biggest, most expensive, most complicated thing you own have an owners’ manual too?
  • Universal Design. Our population is getting older, and people are realizing that having a disability does not mean one’s lifestyle needs to be limited. For the most part, Universal Design is smart design.
  • Comfort. Recently I was at Chris Corson’s Passivhaus project on a cold day. There were no drafts, no cold spots in front of windows, and only a single Mr. Slim heat pump for the whole house. It was comfortable. I’ve been in $20 million dollar houses that were not comfortable (and probably insulated with fiberglass batts).

Keep it simple

What’s out:

  • Passivhaus under-slab insulation. 10 to 14 inches of foam? As great as many of us think the Passivhaus standard is, it’s still hard to imagine using that much foam under the slab.
  • Toxic/unhealthy materials. Duh.
  • Too much embodied energy. Spray foam is a great insulator, but it comes at a cost. Vinyl siding is cheap and (somewhat) effective, but it comes at a cost. Bamboo flooring comes at a (transportation) cost, and having installed quite a bit of it, I don’t think it’s all that great….
  • Diminished returns. The idea of the Pretty Good House is to find the sweet spot between expenditures and gains. When is enough insulation enough?
  • Complexity of structure. With modern living space “needs” and small lots come oversize houses. One way to reduce the apparent scale of the house is to chop up the roof with dormers, pepper the walls with bumpouts, and otherwise create places for ice dams, air leaks and extra construction labor and materials (see Martin’s blog,“Martin’s Ten Rules of Roof Design”). I’m guilty of frequently designing in dormers to the renovations and additions I work on, as a way to buy extra space while respecting the original architecture…but at least I’m aware that it’s a problem.

Source: The Pretty Good House

Addressing the challenge of climate change together, activists and designers

… Climate activism has primarily manifested as “Blockadia.”  Why? Blocking and shutting down bad projects is easier to organize around than efficiency or carbon pricing. And maybe that’s fine. Maybe it isn’t the role of activists to imagine and bring about a new world. Maybe that’s for policymakers, designers, engineers, artists, and entrepreneurs.

Source: Architecture and Climate – what critics misunderstand about climate activism

Thermal Performance of Curtains, and other retrofit options

A couple common questions:

“What is thermal resistances of window film with an air gap, and curtains?”

  • Timber framed window, single glazed (baseline)
    • R0.2
  • Timber frame, single glazed, with drapes and pelmet
    • R0.3 $0-$150/m2
  • Timber frame, single glazed, with window film
    • R0.4 $5/m2
  • Alu frame, thermal break, double glazed, low-e
    • R0.4 $450/m2
  • (Higher R values mean less heat loss)

“What are good retrofit options for my home”?

Reducing heat loss is one important strategy.  (Another is maintaining ventilation)

Good strategies mean picking the most reduction in heat loss, for the least cost.  This chart can help.


Bishop, T. W. (2009). Heat Losses and Gains in Residential Housing in Southern New Zealand (Thesis, Master of Science). University of Otago. Retrieved from


Nine single person units built by young homeless people for themselves

“The project was for 9 single person homes on a small plot adjacent to a disused canal in Peckham – to be self built by local young people in housing need. The build was linked to a local training centre where the self builders were trained up to NVQ level 2 Carpentry and Joinery.

Consortium, a local umbrella group of housing charities, employed a worker to research the project and get it off the ground. This worker stayed on for the build process and acted as a support worker to the self builders. The site was managed by a full time site/project manager who had built on a previous self build scheme and who had youth work experience.

On completion of the scheme the builders became tenants of South London Family Housing Association, who had acted as development agents for the project

A very thorough and honest review report on the project is available from CSBA”

Source: Consortium

BSHF | Learning from informality

The cities of the future, which is what many urbanism conferences talk about, those cities that grow fastest, are not constructed out of glass and steel, but out of straw, recycled plastic, scrap wood, and bricks made of construction waste. Housing there isn’t built by the building companies, developers and policy makers who attend the conferences, but by people building for themselves.

Source: BSHF | Learning from informality

Solar Water Pumping Design

Wanaka Sustainable Barn

Off-grid barn with office, kitchen for agricultural prep, and solar water pumping


  • Off Grid
  • Office
  • 300 tree olive grove – needs 6 m3/day in summer • Kitchen for processing
  • Space heating required


  • Portal Frame barn – inexpensive, quick to erect
  • Insulated and heated with 8kw wood burner, 4kw wetback
  • PV system – 2.4 kWp, delivers 4 kWh/day in June, 16 kWh/day in January
  • Excess capacity in summer used to pump water, and heat potable water
  • House Electricity use – estimated 3 kWh/day in June, 2.5 kWh/day in January
  • Solar Water Pumping System – estimated 0.5 kWh/day in June, 4 kWh/day in January
  • PV and Pumping system very affordable
  • In depth simulations are in progress
  • House and solar system will be built in early 2013, and monitored and reported on


  • Commercial building design strategies like portal frames are cost competitive
  • Photovoltatic systems can be very cost effective when summertime energy can be used for a productive purpose. This system could pump up to 18 m3/day during the summer [from 80m bore]
  • No need to use solar thermal [solar hot water] systems that are likely to freeze

barn2 kwh L water SolarDiagram

Off grid two bedroom design

Dunedin 2-bedroom off-grid house.

Micro-hydro based renewable energy system with LiFePo battery backup.  Constant power from micro-hydro system means only a small battery is needed.

unnamed (1) unnamed (2) unnamed

Temporary projects leave long-lasting legacy

The temporary projects which popped up on newly vacant land around Christchurch after the earthquakes have a lot more value to a traumatised public than we may think.Dr Andreas Wesener, a lecturer in Urban Design at the School of Landscape Architecture has just published research on transitional community-initiated open spaces (CIOS) in Christchurch and says they have a range of benefits that might strengthen community resilience.His paper discusses benefits, possible long-term values and future challenges for community-initiated temporary urbanism in Christchurch.“Resilient people have been described as being able to find positive meaning and display positive emotions even in times of crisis, and introducing positive stimuli and engaging in positive activities have been considered vital in distressing post-disaster situations,” Dr Wesener says.There is evidence that people’s participation in temporary projects has encouraged positive emotions and creativity, strengthened social capital, such as community gardens, and fostered community empowerment within a challenging post-disaster situation, he says.“On an individual level, community members who lost jobs in the aftermath of the earthquakes reported that working on temporary projects had provided opportunities to cope with post-traumatic stress, remain active, learn new skills, establish new networks and in some cases job opportunities have been created.“Even passive passers-by without direct involvement in community-led activities may experience positive emotions solely by noticing that ordinary people are recreating and rebuilding structures within a destroyed urban landscape.”

Source: Temporary projects leave long-lasting legacy

SHAC Challenge 2015 – Call for Entries

Submit your design and be in to win prizes valued at nearly $1000 each!


Submit your design for a Methven, New Zealand, community bus shelter for approx 10-20 snow skiers and boarders waiting for the mountain pick up.  The best designs using natural materials will win free entry to the March 2016 International Straw Building Conference to be held 3-9 March 2016, in Methven, New Zealand. See for conference details.

Natural Building means using minimally processed and locally available materials for building, examples include, untreated timber, rammed earth, adobe, earthen plasters, straw, hempcrete, and others. Natural Building also means using solar energy efficiently and effectively.

Submissions due: 2 November 2015, 5pm NZT
On one or two A3 sheets.

Please email your submission in pdf format (max 15MB) to


  • Either Skitime, Methven –
  • Or, next to Methven Resort and the High School –
    This site may have some high schoolers using the bus stop during term time.  This site may need to incorporate the Methven Resort sign as part of the bus stop.

Competition Objectives

  • Provide a playful competition to help designers, builders and the public better understand the art and science of building.
  • Promote design and build as a collaborative, evolutionary process
  • Promote the re-use of materials and the use of natural materials
  • Promote living well, with purpose, and with less reliance on money and resources
  • Promote creative responses that do not require a large budget

Judging Criteria

  • Use of natural materials
  • Innovation
  • Meeting competition objectives

Entry Requirements and Checklist

  • Register for your submission number here (
  • E-mail your submission to
  • Entries are individual or as a team of 2 people.
  • Due Date – 2 November 2015, 5pm NZT [NZ time]
  • Include a 150 word max description of the project in the body of the email
  • Name your submission ProjectName.pdf
  • The PDF A3 presentation sheets are what explain the project. This may include sketches, plans, elevations, sections, and/or photos of the materials or techniques to be used.
  • Entries not to include your names or logos, only your assigned submission number.
  • Submitted designs should be copyrighted by the author(s) under a Creative Commons license of your choice, suggested: “CC-Attribution” or “CC-Attribution-NonCommercial
  • SHAC reserves the right to not accept any entries.
  • Best entries will be honoured with awards and prizes.
  • All entries may be published by SHAC on our web site or other medium.

Notes from Users of the Site – These requirements are advisory, not mandatory

  • Shelter from Southerly
  • Strong enough to withstand Nor Wester winds and the rain that follows.
  • Rack or similar for skis/snowboards
  • Blend in with existing buildings
  • Not to block views to the mountains.
  • Incorporate elements from their alpine and agricultural encounter.
  • A location for timetables and information to be displayed

Download Poster (2MB)

SHAC Natural Building Competition 2015

If Everyone Lived in an ‘Ecovillage’, the Earth Would Still Be in Trouble

We must swiftly transition to systems of renewable energy, recognising that the feasibility and affordability of this transition will demand that we consume significantly less energy than we have become accustomed to in the developed nations. Less energy means less producing and consuming.

An ecological footprint analysis was undertaken of this community. It was discovered that even the committed efforts of this ecovillage still left the Findhorn community consuming resources and emitting waste far in excess of what could be sustained if everyone lived in this way. (Part of the problem is that the community tends to fly as often as the ordinary Westerner, increasing their otherwise small footprint.)

Source: If Everyone Lived in an ‘Ecovillage’, the Earth Would Still Be in Trouble

Tiny home a true mansion

Her previous construction experience was a bookcase, but that has not stopped Lily Duval from building her own miniature house.

The 27-year-old is two months into the build, and is on track to have most of the construction finished in another couple of months. She is building her house directly on a trailer on communal land in central Christchurch. At 5.5 metres long, 2.5m wide and 4.2m high, Duval’s house fits under the New Zealand Transport Authority’s definition of a light simple trailer.

It requires no building consent.

Her house will cost $30,000 all up, which includes $8000 for the heavy-duty trailer.

via Tiny home a true mansion – news – the-press |

Interest growing for tiny homes

Christchurch man Bevan Thomas built his own “tiny house” from scratch last year and had seen “hundreds” through it over the past few months.

He believed the tiny house movement was becoming increasingly popular in New Zealand as people looked for ways to live with less impact on the planet, or to avoid being “tied to a half a million dollar mortgage”.

“There’s been phenomenal interest in it. It’s surprising actually how well the concept is taking off.”

Thomas built his moveable house after returning to Christchurch to look after family and finding himself at a loose end.

via Interest growing for tiny homes |

Tiny home at a tiny price |

Stefan Cook is revelling in the fact his new home cost $438,000 less than the average Christchurch house price.

Cook has now finished building his 3.4-tonne home, complete with a mezzanine bedroom, living area, kitchen and bathroom. The house measures 8 metres by 2.45m and is 4.1m high.

It was built on top of a custom-built trailer so it could be moved and did not require a building consent.

Cook did not have experience in building but it took him only 12 weeks to get it to a ”liveable” standard.

The building cost $22,000 – an amount he would save within two-and-a-half years by not having to pay rent – and most of the materials were salvaged from demolition sites, which helped keep costs down.

via Tiny home at a tiny price |

Student thinks small to beat rental trap

Christchurch student fed up with high rental costs is building his own “cottage on wheels”.

Stefan Cook is constructing the 2.5 metre by 8m transportable house in a bid to beat the rising cost of student housing and survive the Government’s withdrawal of student allowances for those undertaking post-graduate study.

The 34-year-old geology student at the University of Canterbury said he had been paying up to $160 for a room in a Christchurch flat during the first two years of his bachelor’s degree and expected his $15,000 project would pay for itself within two years.

via Student thinks small to beat rental trap |

Dunedin: Test drive a Tesla roadster electric car

Range and Power – Tesla convoy comes to Dunedin

Otago Polytechnic this Sunday 11th Jan at noon.  0-100km in 4 seconds.tesla

See for other locations around New Zealand.

A new kind of kiwi road trip is amp’ing up, as four kiwi blokes: Steve, Jay, Carl and Nick travel from Cape Reinga to the Bluff in a convoy of sustainable prowess.

The group #leadingthecharge are highlighting the practical and sustainable benefits of using electric cars. To drive home their message they’re cruising the length of the country in New Zealand’s first Tesla Model S car, and its only Telsa Roadster. Va va vroom!

According to the group New Zealand is ideally situated to benefit from the uptake of electric cars. “After the dairy industry, the next biggest source of emissions is our vehicle fleet, and since over 70 per cent of our electrical power is from renewable sources, there’re even bigger emissions savings with an electric fleet here than overseas.”

On their way South the foursome are stopping in to charge up at Otago Polytechnic’s workSpace. “We’re delighted to support the initiative and vision of these four kiwi men,” said workSpace spokesperson, Veronica Stevenson and “given our work in the sustainability and tech transformation space, workSpace is the ideal place for a meet, greet and test drive.”

The goals of #leadingthecharge are three fold

  • Charging – We aim to encourage private and public entities to roll out charging infrastructure all through New Zealand.
  • Driving – We want people to get into Electric Vehicles. Test-drives, car sharing, renting, owning. We don’t care how you do it; we just want people in these cars.
  • Teaching – There are so many untruths circulating about EV (electric vehicle) technology. We want to share true, well-researched and transparent messages about EV and all the benefits of EV ownership for individuals and New Zealand as a whole

All members of the public are warmly invited to attend this unprecedented event. Bring a friend, or the whole family – it isn’t often an event comes along that appeals to car enthusiasts and greenies alike.

WHERE: workSpace – A Block, Otago Polytechnic (across the road and up the grassy bank from the hockey turf on Harbor Tce)

WHEN: 1130am Sunday the 11th January


Veronica Stevenson: Story Strategist at workSpace, 027 4483036

Tim Bishop
SHAC | The Sustainable Habitat Challenge
021 705 346

How traffic engineering standards can break our cities «

It would not be too factitious to suggest that many traffic engineering standards seem to presume that land is free. It’s as is if there are dutch pixies at the bottom of the garden who are manufacturing land from the sea.

One example of such a standard is the concept of the “design vehicle”, which I will focus on for the remainder of this post. Of course there are many other examples of traffic engineering standards, such as minimum parking requirements, which have been discussed before on this blog and that also have hugely negative consequences. The reason I want to focus on the “design vehicle” concept is because it does not receive much attention. And also because it has a fundamental impact on so many things.

For those who are not familiar with the “design vehicle” concept let me briefly explain. The “design vehicle” is a phrase that typically describes the largest, heaviest (per axle), and/or least maneuverable vehicle that is expected to use a particular part of the road network. Naturally, the physical footprint required to accommodate this design vehicle subsequently defines most aspects of the physical road geometry, such as turning radii and pavement design. For this reason, the shape of our road networks is very much defined by the design vehicle that is chosen.

You can read up on some of the design vehicle standards recommended by the NZTA here. The design vehicle for the standard street is typically some form of medium rigid truck, such as what is commonly used to move furniture. I’ve illustrated the physical dimensions of this vehicle below.

Read more at: How traffic engineering standards can break our cities «

Students win national design award for 10sqm building | Scoop News

Students win national design award for 10sqm building

The design brief was simple – create a breakout space that didn’t require consent and incorporated sustainability, and now four Otago Polytechnic Design students have won the national Sustainable Habitat Construction (SHAC) Pop-up Challenge for their design of an innovative and efficient ten square metre building.

Studio56 was conceived by third-year Design students, Dean Griffiths, Alice Perry, Nina Daniels and Charlotte McKirdy, and was developed to provide a unique learning and collaboration environment for both students and staff, within Otago Polytechnic’s Living Campus – a vibrant community garden and a sustainable model of urban agriculture.

via Students win national design award for 10sqm building | Scoop News.

Students win national design award for 10sqm building | Scoop News

Where do you start a sustainable house?

So, you know you want a sustainable (healthy, efficient, affordable and desirable) home, but where do you start? I’ve covered the fundamentals  of what makes a good energy efficient home, but these are details. What’s the big picture? Where do you start a sustainable house?


Before getting too specific about your plan, here are some questions I recommend being able to answer:

  • Why are you renovating/building/remodelling/looking for a new home?
  • What are you most dissatisfied with at the moment?
  • How many people are you building for?
  • How much time are all these people actually going to spend in your home each day, each week, each month…?
  • What do you want your weekends to look like?
  • Describe your ‘perfect day’. Who are you with? Where are you? What are you doing?
  • Does you perfect day involve any of the following:
    • Mowing the lawn
    • Fixing a fence
    • Painting a fence
    • Cleaning windows
    • Cleaning a pool
    • Walking a dog
    • Vacuuming
    • Cleaning three bathrooms
    • Painting the house
    • Cleaning the house
    • Going on adventures with your family
    • Oiling a deck
    • Blowing/sweeping leaves
    • Gardening
    • Relaxing by the pool
    • Working a second job
    • Being at the beach
    • Harvesting vegetables and fruit from your own garden
    • Watching someone else do any of the above

What’s all this got to do with the location and layout of your dream home? A lot. Creating a better, sustainable place to live is about lifestyle. This is where you need to start.

When Natalie and I moved to Auckland our criteria for a place to live included:

  1. Walking distance to a primary school with a good reputation
  2. Walking distance to a train station and a train commute of 30 minutes or less
  3. At least three bedrooms, ideally four (Xavier, our third child had just been born, and we wanted to the option of a home office)


The next big question is about budget. There are two big questions here:

  1. How much do you want to pay each month to own and operate a healthy, safe home?
  2. How much money do have to design, consent, building and finish your project?

They’re both related. The more you borrow, the more your monthly expenses are going to be. The more you invest on good design, insulation and solar power, the less your monthly running costs are going to be.

As painful, boring or frustrating as it might be, it’s worth spending some time here. Most of the designers I speak to say that a client’s true budget is one of the hardest things to pin down. Knowing exactly how much money you’re wanting to spend and being honest about this upfront will save time money and disappointment by avoiding uneasy scope changes when you do start talking to a designer.

Read more at the excellent “Where do you start a sustainable house?.”

How to: Get resource consent

What’s it for?

A resource consent gives approval for things like the use or subdivision of land, the taking of water, the discharge of contaminants in water, soil or air, or the use or occupation of coastal space.

So you could say it’s to look after the resources that will support not only your home, but the area you live in.

How do you get it?

You write an application that says why your project falls within the bounds of the Resource Management Act and relevant local regulations and policies, and you pay a fee.

In practice, most people get someone else to do that for them and according to Dr Roger Blakeley (chief planning officer for Auckland Council) there is an “expectation that you would employ a professional” for this process.

But when I looked into it, it was going to cost between $10,000 and $15,000 to get someone to write our application, so I wrote it myself.

via How to: Get resource consent |

Energy and the Sustainable House

We think the point of sustainable housing is to support living without being locked in to a high rate of consumption of resources.  For example, energy is a big concern.  The chart below shows the average energy use of a New Zealander, per person, per day, in kWh. For conversion, 1 kWh of electricity is about $0.25, and there is 10kWh of heat energy in 1 L of petrol.
This chart shows that for the average person, more energy goes into producing our food than in heating our houses. And consumption of goods (stuff), is the largest energy use.  On average, we each use 3.1 L of petrol per day in our car.  For a sustainable house, we must make reductions in each of these categories.  In the category, Home Energy: we could make the heating efficient with heat pumps, and make energy use low or positive with photovoltaics.  For car travel, pick a site that is bikeable, and make facilities for bicycles in the house. For stuff, pick a decorating style that does not require frequent refreshes. Make the house design flexible so it is not demolished and has a long life.  For food, design for a garden.  For plane travel, pick a frequent holiday destination that is within your country.

Wetting and Drying of Timber Framed Walls


[Excerpted from Finch and Straube, 2007]

“It is well accepted that moisture is one of the primary
causes of premature building enclosure deterioration. Excess
moisture content combined with above-freezing temperatures
for long enough will cause rot, mold growth, corrosion, and
discoloration of many building materials. The four major
moisture sources and transport mechanisms that can damage
a building enclosure are (Figure 1, left side):

  1. Precipitation, largely driving rain or splash-back at grade
  2. Water vapor in the air transported by diffusion and/or air
    movement through the wall (both to interior and exterior)
  3. Built-in and stored moisture, particularly for concrete or
    wood products
  4. Liquid and bound ground water, driven by capillarity and

At some time during the life of a building, wetting should
be expected at least in some locations. In the case of a bulk
water leak, drainage, if provided, will remove the majority of
the moisture from the wall cavity. However, a significant
amount of water will remain absorbed by materials and
adhered to surfaces. This remaining moisture can be removed
(dried) from the wall by the following mechanism (Figure 1,
right side):

  1. Evaporation (liquid water transported by capillarity to the
    inside or outside surfaces)
  2. Evaporation and vapor transport by diffusion, air leakage,
    or both either outward or inward
  3. Drainage of unabsorbed liquid water, driven by gravity
  4. Ventilation by convection through intentional (or unintentional) vented air cavities behind the cladding

A balance between wetting, drying, and storage is
required to ensure the long-term durability of the building

2014 Challenge Winners

SHAC Popup Challenge 2014

2014 SHAC Popup Challenge winners have been announced!


The winners Mizu Tea House pops-up in busy, downtown Auckland to provide an escape from demanding daily life, and Studio56 is a Dunedin break-out space that provides a unique learning and collaboration environment.
Highly commended, Flowing Tyres is an urban garden like pavilion.

The teams are now working to build their projects. Which team will finish first?

Over 50 submissions were received from all over New Zealand. Teams worked to design a playful pop up structure to help designers, builders and the public better understand the art and science of sustainable building. Teams responded to the challenge to show how we all can live well with less need for resources. SHAC promotes design as a collaborative, playful process that generates and evolves good ideas. Winners receive a SHAC trophy, a mark of industry accolades.

About SHAC
[SHAC] is a network of designers, builders, engineers, and architects who want to build a better way. SHAC is addressing the need for a more sustainable built environment. We host competitions and workshops to find good ideas and connect people. We work on innovative small-scale building projects for clients and their community.

Tim Bishop, Coordinator, SHAC | 021 705 346
Laura May, Team Coordinator, Mizu Tea House | 021 118 6039
Alice Perry, Team Coordinator, Studio56 | 027 335 1654 –> Press Release
Naomi Thompson, Team Coordinator, Flowing Tyres | 022 646 2818

PopUp! – Sustainable Habitat Challenge 2014 Call for Entries

Photos and/or drawings of your pop-up structure due 20 August 2014 12:00 noon.  On two or more A3 sheets.  Please email your submission to

What Pop-Up structure will you create?  A sculpture, a shop, an office, a venue, a place to play?

Competition Objectives
* Provide a playful competition to help designers, builders and the public better understand the art and science of building.
* Promote design and build as a collaborative, evolutionary process
* Promote the re-use of materials
* Promote living well, with purpose, and with less reliance on money and resources
* Promote creative responses that do not require a large budget

Entry Requirements and Checklist
* Register for your number here
* Please email your submission to
* Due Date – 21 Aug 2014 12:00 noon [NZ time] * 150 word description of the project in the body of the email [same as described below] * ProjectName-SubmissionNumber-A3.pdf
* ProjectName-SubmissionNumber-image.png   [or .jpg or .gif] * ProjectName-SubmissionNumber-any other file   [could be sketchup, pdf of photos, etc] * The PDF A3 presentation sheets are what explain the project. This may include sketches, plans, elevations, sections, and/or photos of the materials or techniques to be used.
* Entries not to include your names or logos, only your assigned submission number.
* In 150 words or less explain the following:
a) The project and its purpose, it’s present and potential future uses.
b) Possible methods of construction
* Submitted designs should be copyrighted by the author(s) under a Creative Commonslicense of your choice, suggested: “CC-Attribution” or “CC-Attribution-NonCommercial
* SHAC reserves the right to not accept any entries.
* Best entries will be honoured with awards and prizes.
* All entries may be published by SHAC on our web site or other medium.
* Thank you for your submission!

SHAC Awards 2013

Bella Bloomfield is the winner of the 2013 SHAC Competition held with Surf Life Saving New Zealand.


We saw a number of excellent entries from students and professionals from all over New Zealand for the SHAC 2013 Surf Life Saving Tower Challenge.

Bella’s tower, the Portabella, most impressed the participating Surf Life Saving New Zealand clubs, their members, and SHAC judges.  She also won the Otago Polytechnic Design Prototype Award and $800 in their 2013 grad show for this work.

Bella’s Surf Life Saving tower design and prototype is now available for purchase from BB Cocoon Design

Furthermore, SHAC is pleased to announce that Mark Mismash has been awarded the “SHAC Research Leader Award for 2013” for his innovative interventions in Christchurch communities.

SHAC | Tim Bishop | 021 750 346
Surf Life Saving New Zealand | Nick Mulcahy | 04 560 0334
Cocoon Design | Bella Bloomfield |
Otago Polytechnic | 0800 762 786

Prefab | Modular | SIPS | Working Bee

Prefab | Modular | SIPS | Working Bee

Help us build a new home for Christchurch community organisations. Working bee this weekend [30 Nov and 1 Dec]. Sat 10-1, Sun 10-1, BBQ 1-3. 24 Walker St, CBD.Building using Structural Insulated Panels – workshop

Walker St Building Community – SHAC fromTim Bishop on Vimeo.

Specifications [Coming Soon]

Come help us make the Walker St Hub at 24 Walker st.
A new home for the following community organisations who want to help you realise your dream for your small business or social enterprise.


Sustainable Habitat Challenge 2013 – Call for Entries

Richard Horden "Beach Point" 1997

Richard Horden “Beach Point” 1997

Design a subconsent Surf Lifesaving Tower.

Two or more A3 sheets due 30 Aug 2013 12:00 noon.


How are we going to live well, with purpose, with more community, and with less reliance on resources like materials and energy?

The SHAC Challenge is a way to learn about the building code, experiment with buildings, and to develop prototypes for our new built environment. We designers, engineers, architects, builders, and others will be creating our new built environment for the rest of our lives.

This challenge has entrants considering a a key future design need: structures that sit off of the ground, on potentially adjustable supports.  How is the structure anchored to the ground?  Are the anchors durable? When will the structure overturn?

* Provide a playful competition to help designers, builders and the public better understand the art and science of building.
* Promote design and build as a collaborative, evolutionary process
* Promote the re-use of building materials
* Promote living well, with purpose, and with less reliance on money and resources
* Promote creative responses that do not require a large budget

Design Requirements
* The building must not require building consent, as per the DBH discussion document.  Example exemptions (daawalls fences), (gadecks), (i10m2 buildings), (jveranda/patio/porch/awnings), (jb – pergola), (je – shade sail), (jf – carport), and (k – low cost / consequence).  Exemptions can be combined.
* The building will provide for use as a surf life saving tower. It may also provide other use(s) now or in the future.
* The building may make use of recycled building materials.
* The building may make use of solar energy: eg, passive solar, solar electric, or solar thermal technology.

Entry Requirements and Checklist

* Register for your number here
* Please email your submission to
* Due Date – 30 Aug 2013 12:00 noon [NZ time] * 150 word description of the project in the body of the email [same as described below] * ProjectName-SubmissionNumber-A3.pdf
* ProjectName-SubmissionNumber-image.png   [or .jpg or .gif] * ProjectName-SubmissionNumber-any other file   [could be sketchup, pdf of photos, etc] * The PDF A3 presentation sheets are what explain the project. This may include sketches, plans, elevations, sections, and/or photos of the materials or techniques to be used.
* Entries not to include your names or logos, only your assigned submission number.
* In 150 words or less explain the following:
a) The project and its purpose, it’s present and potential future uses.
b) Possible methods of construction
c) List the exemptions used from Schedule 1 of the building Act.
d) How the project will be supplied with any electrical power, and water, if needed.
* You may choose to include a sketchup file. Or photos of projects underway are acceptable.
* Please submit all files electronically to
* Maximum size about 20MB per email.
* Submitted designs should be copyrighted under a Creative Commons license of your choice, suggested: “CC-Attribution” or “CC-Attribution-NonCommercial”
* Judging will take place in September-November.
* Best entries will be honoured with awards and prizes
* Submitted designs should be copyrighted by the author(s) under a Creative Commons license of your choice, suggested: “CC-Attribution” or “CC-Attribution-NonCommercial”* Questions can be sent to, and answers will be sent to all registered teams.
* SHAC reserves the right to not accept any entries.
* Best entries will be honoured with awards and prizes.
* All entries may be published by SHAC on our web site or other medium.
* Thank you for your submission!



The Chair - Wilson and Hill Architects

The Chair – Wilson and Hill Architects

More on Surf Life Saving Towers from Surf Life Saving New Zealand >>> (PDF)

Help us advertise – please put up a poster for us:  A3-PDF, A4-PDF

2012 Entries >>>

Surf Life Saving Towers

There are a range of surf lifeguard patrol towers currently in use throughout New Zealand, including:

· Patrol towers incorporated within clubhouse’s (e.g. Titahi Bay); these are typically rooms which protrude from the clubhouse. They are common where the clubhouse has been built on the active beach or foredune.

· Standalone fixed structures (e.g. Muriwai Beach); these are solid structures, which are often built into the foredune. They have typically been used where the clubhouse is situated a considerable distance back from the beach (as such have limited view of the beach).

· Semi-mobile structures (e.g. Takapuna Beach); these structures are placed on the beach, and are self-supporting. They have typically been used where there is a surf lifeguarding service, but no club or clubhouse. These towers are removed from the beach (via crane) and stored during the off-season.

· Mobile structures (e.g. Piha Beach); these are driven on/off the beach daily.

The key functional requirements and intended benefits differ with each type of patrol tower. The particular tower a club/surf lifeguard service choose will depend on the need of the service and the funding available.

There are a range of different designs for each type of patrol tower, with many different examples throughout New Zealand. Surf Life Saving clubs have traditionally engaged a designer and/or manufacturer to produce their tower based on their needs and requirements.

Intensive Urban Agriculture

I seem to get confused often by the word garden. I always think vegetables, but sometimes I later realise that people mean decorative gardens! When I was in Japan last month I specifically went to Kyoto because I heard it was called a garden city.

The Japanese were very hungry at the end of the second world war. Vast areas of the urban landscape had been destroyed. In the first 7 postwar years, three large earthquakes also contributed to the difficulties.

Intensive gardening and farming fills the suburban neighbourhoods of Kyoto. Groups of two and three story houses with private decorative gardens are surrounded by paddocks of vegetables and rice.

For a peppercorn rent, residents let a few furrows for their own use, or larger areas to sell to local shops.

The lack of fencing allows for small tractors and other machinery to be used and shared by many.

Kyoto is known for the garden city – for its decorative gardens – but I like the productive vegetable gardens.

Titahi Bay, Porirua City

Matthew ter Borg
Registered Architect
Box 30904

Earth Systems

Japan is fascinating. The Japanese are so respectful of everything -work, other people, the natural world. And they have so many rituals – for me it seems to be a way to relax. Together it makes for a human society that is synchronized with the natural environment. Their technology is very efficient and they husband their natural environment so as it produces so many useful things from urban land, rural land, and even the forests. Japan is about 130% the size of New Zealand. And they are worried that they only produce food for about 40% of their population. That is 48 million people!


In early February I visited Tokyo and Kyoto. Tokyo is the megalopolis – it has huge apartment buildings that extend as far as I could see from the 18th floor of my hostel. Kyoto on the other hand is largely 2 and 3 story buildings interspersed with many decorative gardens, temples, and productive fields.

I presented at the “Earth Systems Governance Conference Tokyo 2013” at the United Nations University. Yes I fell off my chair when I was accepted to speak at this conference!!

The conference is trying to raise the point that all of humanity is a system “governed” by written and unwritten, or formal and informal, rules and norms.

The conference did attract many presenters on top-down international relations and nuclear energy policy, however the project is also about “bottom up”, grassroots changes in our human-made earth system.

It was a fascinating conference – I was astonished that the people that consider big global issues find what we are doing in Christchurch interesting.

Presently, in New Zealand, the current set of unwritten rules and norms say: “houses are very expensive; spending 5 times your annual income on your house is the best way to save for the future; building a house is best left to the experts; group action is ineffective; excellence and high performance is the sole realm of the highly trained professional; making positive change in your life is profoundly difficult and best left to the experts.”

I presented on the emerging network of groups in Christchurch that are showing other possibilities and suggesting new norms.  These groups are creating new possibilities and presenting new ideas that will likely lead to a more sustainable built environment.

One key idea is that we use volunteers and skilled people collaborating together. Another is that you don’t need to be a highly trained person to start something.

There is an informal network of groups in Christchurch that have responded to the earthquake are rewriting the informal rules, and creating new norms. These groups include Greening the Rubble – [gardens can be anywhere!], Gapfiller – [life is a stage!], CPIT – [we are learning by doing!], Live in Vacant Spaces [there are other ways to access land!], The Concert [volunteers are effective, and it is very fun!], Rekindle [we don’t have to throw those building materials away!], White Elephant [young people create and do!], Renew Brighton [a community can remake itself] Maybe one day the formal rules could change, in response.

Written rules also have an impact that was recently documented by Stu Donovan on

The primary impact of local government regulations is not through the constraints they place on land supply (i.e. urban containment), but actually through the barriers they create to the development of more compact and affordable housing. Here’s some examples of regulations pursued by local governments in New Zealand that seem likely to restrict the supply of affordable housing:

  1. Minimum lot sizes – i.e. “all ye who have less money shall be forced to purchase land you don’t want.
  2. Minimum apartment sizes – i.e. “all ye who have less money shall be forced to purchase living space you don’t want.
  3. Minimum parking requirements – i.e. “all ye who have less money shall be forced to pay for vehicles you don’t own”.
  4. Maximum height limits – i.e. “all ye who chose to live like rats are consigned to perish like rats – on the street.
  5. Heritage protections – i.e. “all ye who don’t have the money to renovate a villa shall live elsewhere.

The Earth Systems Science Plan defines the five analytical problems of governance. The five A’s, for short: Agency – to what degree groups and individuals feel like they can act to create positive change. Allocation and Access – how individuals and groups are allocated or access needed resources like land, housing, food. Accountability – projects are legitimated – how do we know about, participate in the decision making around projects that affect or interest us? Adaptiveness – how do we change or reorganize in response to needs? And finally, Architecture – what structure of organization allows for good outcomes in the other areas? For example, what type of command and control, what processes or procedures, or what norms?

In Christchurch we have a loose network of groups that come together for various projects as suits each group. Each group thus retains its own agency – the ability to act. There are no formal contracts between groups that restrict or prohibit action.  Each group has a few energetic coordinators who harness the capacity of skilled professionals and keen volunteers/apprentices. No explicit coordination between groups is needed. Each group’s actions are coordinated by skilled and resourceful coordinators who keep the momentum going.

Projects are “legitimated” when people volunteer to do them. Good projects are supported by volunteers. Employees do what their bosses say, but volunteers only work on things they believe in.  More volunteers equals more legitimacy equals more impact. It is unlikely that an unpopular project will have a big impact, while popular projects will grow and grow.

And It seems that from this architecture of a loose affiliation of interacting groups, supported by a mix of volunteers and professionals, emerges a system that can support a more sustainable built environment.  In other words it supports supports multiple groups to have agency, to have legitimacy, and to demonstrate other ways of allocation and access to resources.

Will this hodge-podge of groups lead to a more sustainable built environment? This is still to be discovered. I had an intuition that this was the case, and the conference introduced me to the academic literature further supports this case:  That small, self-governing systems of local groups do effectively and fairly allocate limited resources. See, for example, the work of natural resource economist Elinor Ostrom.

We are prototyping possibilities for the future today!

New Brighton Pop-Up Precinct

The New Brighton Pop-Up precinct has gotten off to a great start!  Over 70 people from New Brighton were supported by 30 people that SHAC brought from around New Zealand.  This included students and staff members from Unitec, CPIT, the Otago Polytechnic, and volunteers from The Concert.


More at Facebook: Renew Brighton, SHAC page or SHAC group

SHAC Micro-Challenge – “Sustainable” office chair

A Sustainable Office Chair? $200 cash prize!

David McKay makes a convincing argument that 40% of our total energy use goes to make the products that we buy.

Announcing a SHAC Micro-Challenge – The “Sustainable Office Chair”

Please submit your sketch or photo of your practical and comfortable Sustainable Office Chair.

Is it one made from natural materials, or a durable and repairable chair that lasts for many years, or one made from entirely recycled products, or hand made, or made by a machine like a 3D printer, or a chair that is made from starch and dissolves when wet?

Judging: Chair must be practical, comfortable, suitable for your office, and “sustainable”

Please supply a photo or sketch and a short description, how to make the chair, and how is the chair “sustainable” – that is – supporting living well, with purpose, and with less reliance on resources.

Please email your submissions to by the 24 October 2012.  $200 cash prize for the best submission.  Other prizes too! The judges decision is final.  The best submissions will be exhibited publically.

SHAC Chair Challenge Poster [PDF]

Living large with 10m2 buildings

Two 10 square metre buildings built rather close together.  Eaves and awnings nearly connect the two buildings.

SHAC 10 sq metre Challenge Judging Criteria

How are we going to live well, with purpose, and with less reliance on resources like materials and energy?

The SHAC Challenge is a way to learn about the building code, experiment with buildings, and to develop prototypes for our new built environment.  We designers, engineers, architects, builders, and others will be creating our new built environment for the rest of our lives.  Lets have fun with this:  Enter the SHAC 10m2 Challenge! – due 20 August 2012.  [entry details…]

For example, energy is an important resource, and in New Zealand we presently use about 40% of our total personal energy for transport, 20% in the home and to produce our food, and 40% to produce the stuff we buy ( Scadden, p12 ). [Burning coal and oil in far-away, overseas factories].

Our new built environment will reduce our need for resources like water and energy by a number of methods.  Our judges will consider entries according to these points, from technical improvements to projects that inspire creativity and support people so that they have understanding, energy, and the will to create.  SHAC judges will take a wholistic approach in judging.

Judging Criteria

1) responding to a need

2) improving our knowledge, technical ability, and desire for durable, repairable stuff [from housing to cell phones], so that over time we have much less need to buy so much of it.  Teaching young people how to design, build, and maintain buildings and things is a great start!

3) stimulating and developing knowledge, awareness, and use of small quantities of valuable renewable electricty.

4) reducing the need for, and facilitating alternatives to private automotive travel

5) reducing the need for, and facilitating alternatives to regular business travel

6) Facilitating groups of people to get together to share ideas and create.

7) Stimulating the imagination and supporting groups of people to make progress on creating  an environmentally sound and socially just society.

8) Exhibiting a quality and care of construction that inspires others to support, promote  similar projects, and adapt and reuse your designs in future work.

F3 Artbox

F3 SiloStay

SHAC Awards 2012

May 2012 Awards
Rebuild and Reuse – for the Whole House Reuse project Juliet Arnott –
Design – F3 Design
Community Development  –   Joshua Durrant, Jess Smale, Sophie Moore
Micro and Temporary Architecture – Gapfiller
Commercialisation –  Danny Squires and Martin Luff  ThinkRadical.Net

On the 2-3 May 2012, SHAC presented the 2nd annual workshop on micro-architecture at the Christchurch Polytechnic Student Centre.  Sixty attendees discussed temporary architecture, simple buildings, and the reuse of building material.

“People cherish their culture through recycling” – those are the words of Wang Shu, the 2012 winner of the Pritzker architecture prize.  The demolition of red stickered housing and CBD buildings does not have to mean the eradication of Christchurch’s history or culture – nearly all materials can be reused in new construction, incorporating local memories and fusing the past with the present.

What is permanent in this land of earthquakes? In San Francisco, the Palace of Fine Arts was built in 1915 as a temporary building for the Panama-Pacific Exposition and still stands today as an icon of the city.  From the cardboard cathedral to the convention centre – how long will they serve us?

“Simple buildings are key for affordability” said Canadian architect Brian McKay Lyons, recently interviewed on Nine to Noon with Kim Hill.  Lyons, from Nova Scotia, says “simple buildings are what we farmers and fishermen build when we can’t afford to get things wrong”

SHAC Micro-Architecture Workshop 2-3 May 2012

Micro-Architecture Workshop 2012

2-3 May 2012, CPSA Building, CPIT, Christchurch.
Micro and Temporary Architecture, Simple Building, and Reuse of Materials 

Ticket Type

on how spending time on the small details helps the big picture emerge from the efforts of many.
We’d like your attendance, and contribution.  Builders, developers, architects, designers, and more.
  1. Kevin Low’s Small Projects
  2. Chris and Ben’s SPACE MoveableRooms
  3. GapFiller’s Tati Design Competition and Temporary 10m2 Office
  4. DesignBoom’s Small Houses
  5. Dwelle
  6. More Overseas and NZ examples at

SHAC turns spotlight on micro-architecture solutions

Temporary architecture, reuse of materials, community building and simple buildings are the themes of the 2nd annual Sustainable Habitat Challenge micro-architecture workshop, to be held at the CPSA building at CPIT on 2 and 3 May.

Christchurch builders, designers, architects, engineers and community members will discuss ideas, deliver presentations and facilitate workshops at the event, which brings together some ideas for the city’s community-led regeneration.

Presenters including Mark Fielding, Juliet Arnott, Joshua Durrant, Jessica Halliday and Claire Benge will ask pertinent questions such as: What is permanent in our post-earthquake city? Using examples such as the cardboard cathedral and the convention centre – how long will Christchurch’s buildings serve us and how can international examples inspire us?

In San Francisco, for example, the Palace of Fine Arts was built in 1915 as a temporary building for the Panama-Pacific Exposition and still stands today as an icon of the city. As 2012 Pritzker architecture prizewinner Wang Shu has said, “People cherish their culture through recycling”.

The demolition of red stickered housing and CBD buildings does not mean the wholesale eradication of Christchurch’s history or culture, but how can we reuse and recycle materials to incorporate local memories and fuse the past with the present?

Entry by sliding scale koha, and is free for students and young people. To attend simply register at or phone Tim Bishop on 021 705 346. CPD points available.

Poster: Micro-Architecture_poster2012

Draft Schedule SHAC-Micro-Architecture-Workshop-DRAFT-Schedule

Zero-Energy House

Zero-Modular House. This is a group work, members include David Wong, Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe and Biran He. We all had different tasks to utilize individual strengths in this group project. My responsibility was to research about solar panels, obstruction masks, and all presentation renders.

Since this is a tech paper, we had done a great amount of research on renewable resources, such as the minimum amount of solar panels needed to generate enough for the household.

>> Zero-Energy House.

GapFiller 10m2 SHAC

The Gap Filler temporary office
In December 2011, a team of young people got together with a vision to build an office for Gap Filler using materials saved from demolition sites around Christchurch. The team developed the design over the summer and with many talented volunteers built the office in a week in January!

The design and build was organised by SHAC in association with the Regeneration and White Elephant charitable trusts. Many skilled and unskilled volunteers helped out – builders, architects, engineers, young people and the occasional passer-by.

All of the building materials are reused, with the exception of building paper, insulation, chicken wire, fixings, clear plastic cladding and 4 sheets of thin treated plywood.

The office has an internal floor area of less than 10 square meters. Our talented designers and builders believe that the office complies with the building code, and is warm, stable, resistant to moisture, durable, and supports fire safety.

This office is experimenting with new building techniques. The east and southern wall structure are made from reused shipping pallets, a technology developed by Mark Fielding of Solabode Ltd in Nelson. The southern wall is clad with reused printing plates kindly donated by the Christchurch Press.

This tiny office will stay here for approximately 3 – 6 months. Power will come initially from neighbours and then, from solar power. Wireless internet access will come from a kind neighbour. Once we leave this site, the office will be relocated on a truck to another vacant site in Christchurch. The internal floor area is less than 10m2 and did not require a building consent.

We are using this land with the generous support of Ascot TV, who lost their building on this site in the earthquakes. They are now located at 300 Colombo Street, up the road.

What’s SHAC?
The Sustainable Habitat Challenge is a network of people designing and building more sustainable buildings and neighbourhoods. SHAC projects are educational in nature, teaching those involved new skills. The buildings they create are designed with non-profit group or charity in mind; in this case, Gap Filler. Gap Filler has been gifted this movable building which will be used as an office..

SHAC – affordable, delightful housing, micro architecture, simple building, and more… SHAC is about living well with less reliance on resources, and finding our purpose. See for more info.

What’s Gap Filler?
Gap Filler is a creative urban regeneration initiative started in response to the September 4, 2010 Canterbury earthquake, and revised and expanded in light of the more destructive February 22, 2011 quake. It is now administered by the Gap Filler Charitable Trust. See for more info.

Gap Filler aims to temporarily activate vacant sites created by the quakes within Christchurch with creative projects for community benefit, to make for a more interesting, dynamic and vibrant city. Gap Filler has done a number of projects to date around Christchurch such as a book exchange, painted pianos, a community space and petanque pitch in Lyttelton, and outdoor events such as cinema and live music. Two projects have been completed in Sydenham recently, too – the outdoor chess set next to Honey Pot Café and Wayne Youle’s shadow board mural (working with Christchurch Art Gallery).

THANK YOU to: the landowners – ASCOT TV (especially Chris), Graham at ECO Framing, Barry Dowrick, CPIT and the Otago Polytechnic for the loan of many tools and Mark Fielding of Solabode Ltd in Nelson for the 5 prefab pallet walls and The Christchurch Press for the metal printing plates.

we thank you!

tim, clayton, barnaby, barry, lani, florian, ben, emma, ella, alice, amber, rachel, regan, felicity, alan, nick, seth, naomi, jules, the Australian group of young volunteers, ants, ann, nev, bob, dave, tarn, barry, darcy, Andrew, kyle, nastassja, Shayne, and kerry

Southern Demolition, Terra Lana Insulation, The Pumphouse [See Photo below], The Window Marketplace, Addington Demolition, Christchurch Demolition and Salvage, Clyne and Benny, Skelly Holdings, Dulux, Steel and Tube, White Elephant Trust and F3 Design, Solabode Ltd, Firth, and PSP